Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://repo.snau.edu.ua:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/11247
Title: Вплив застосування удобрювальних продуктів на продуктивність кукурудзи в умовах Північно-східного Лісостепу України
Other Titles: Influence of the fertilizer products usage on corn productivity in the northern-east Forest-Step of Ukraine
Authors: Дацько, Оксана Миколаївна
Datsko, O. M.
Keywords: інокуляція
добрива
Zea mays L.
кукурудза
урожайність
обробіток грунту
мікробіологічна активність
біопрепарати
inoculation
fertilizers
Zea mays
maize
soil tillage
microbiological activity
bioproducts
productivity
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Сумський національний аграрний університет
Citation: Дацько О. М. Вплив застосування удобрювальних продуктів на продуктивність кукурудзи в умовах Північно-східного Лісостепу України [Електронний ресурс] : дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора філософії за спеціальністю : 201 «Агрономія» / О. М. Дацько. – Суми : Сумський національний аграрний університет, 2023. – 212 с.
Description: Fertilizer products which have an effective microorganism as a component, for example, microorganisms that can benefit plant organisms due to symbiosis. Amount of this products increases extremely fast and are becoming increasingly popular, especially among agricultural producers who certify their products as organic. Fertilizers life this have a different name, some scientists call them biofertilizers, another – soil (or plant) probiotics, but the name doesn`t change the composition, which is the same. Nowadays, biofertilizers are one of the ways which can increase the yield of crops grown by organic technology. This happens due to the mobilization of macro- and microelements contained in the soil, due to the work of microorganisms, cooperation them with plants. Fertilizer products with effective microorganisms present themselves as a result of their low cost, cheap ingredients, and small-cost production methods, despite their proven effectiveness. The use of soil tillage in corn production is a topic of ongoing discussion at the moment. It is commonly accepted that deep tillage increases the yield of crops but has a negative impact on the biodiversity of the soil. On the other hand, top cultivation of the soil or its absence (no-till) reduces yield but helps to improve the condition of the soil by protecting the environment for microorganisms. Farmers now have a great resource in fertilizer products as a result of the issue with inorganic fertilizer prices that are constantly growing. Due to the rule Organic Standard, using of synthetically produced mineral fertilizers is forbidden. Nevertheless, the question of choosing the optimal soil tillage method for growing corn remains open, as it requires a compromise between yield and preservation of soil biodiversity. The research led to the study of the effects of primary tillage and fertilizer products with effective microorganisms on corn hybrids with different FAO. It was established that flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm had a significant effect on the height of plants when growing Harmonium (FAO 380), while in all variants of treatment with soil pro-prebiotics, combined treatments with fertilizer products (VITAMIN O7 + 1 LEANUM, VITAMIN O7 + 2 LEANUM, LEANUM +1 LEANUM and LEANUM +2 LEANUM), or processing by leaves (control +1 LEANUM and control +2 LEANUM). It is important to note that LEANUM is a liquid and that VITAMIN O7 is a powder. As a result, both fertilizer products were used for inoculation, whereas only LEANUM was used for leaf treatment. It has been proven that inoculation did not show any positive effect on plant height. For the cultivation of Hemingway (FAO 280), among the soil tillage, flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm and disking to a depth of 15-18 cm had the best effect on plant height. Remarkably, compared to other tillage alternatives, the height of the plants was much higher in the option without the use of fertilizers (control) as a result. The effect of biofertilizers on the height of corn plants was significant only for combined treatments with fertilizers and foliar treatments. At the same time, the height of the cob attachment for both hybrids was higher than when flat-cut cultivation was performed to a depth of 25-28 cm. However, it is difficult to clearly identify which treatment with fertilizer products contributed to the increase in the indicator, since in almost all variants, except for the control + 2 LEANUM for disking to a depth of 5-8 cm, the indicator of the height of the cob attachment was higher than in the control. The diameter of the stem of both hybrids was also significantly affected by flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm. At the same time, when growing Harmonium, for all tillage options, the highest values of stem diameter were recorded for LEANUM inoculation and the combined LEANUM + 2 LEANUM treatment. For Hemingway it is difficult to pinpoint the specific soil pro-prebiotic treatment that would guarantee an increase in this parameter. With the exception of disking to a depth of 5-8 cm, which resulted in a significantly lower indication, the area of the leaf surface throughout the cultivation of Harmonium remained statistically unchanged for each of the tillage alternatives. At the same time, fertilizing products led to an increase in leaf surface area in all variants, except LEANUM and LEANUM + 2 LEANUM, compared to the control. The increase in the area of the leaf surface of Hemingway was significantly influenced by flat cutting to a depth of 25-28 cm and disking to a depth of 5-8 cm. Among the options for using biofertilizers, all options, except for LEANUM and VITAMIN O7 inoculation, led to a significant increase in the leaf surface area. Tillage and the use of biofertilizers significantly influenced the concentration of chlorophyll a and the total concentration of chlorophyll a and b during the cultivation of Harmonium. Disking to a depth of 15-18 cm resulted in the lowest chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll values, a trend that was also observed for the other hybrid. During Hemingway's cultivation, tillage and the use of biological fertilizers did not affect concetration of pigment parameters. The structure of the harvest indexes (length, diameter, number of rows in a cob, number of grains in one row) differed for each of the hybrids. In particular, when growing Harmonium, none of the options for the main tillage had a significant effect on the length of the cob, but combined treatments with fertilizer products (VITAMIN O7 + 2 LEANUM, LEANUM + 1 LEANUM and LEANUM + 2 LEANUM), leaf treatments (control + 1 LEANUM ) and LEANUM inoculation provided an increase in the index. The increase in the diameter of the cob occurred when performing plowing and flat cutting to a depth of 25-28 cm on the variant control +2 LEANUM. At the same time, statistically, the influence of tillage was not significant, in contrast to the use of biofertilizers. In particular, when compared with the control, the variants control +1 LEANUM, control +2 LEANUM and LEANUM had a significant positive effect. None of the investigated factors had a significant effect on the number of rows in a cob, while the effect on the number of grains in a row was significant. Thus, all tillage options had an effect on the indicator compared to the control, however, when performing flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm, the number of grains in a row was significantly greater, and when disking to a depth of 15-18 and 5-8 cm was significantly less. At the same time, no variant of biofertilizers had a significant impact. None of the studied factors had a positive effect on the length of the cob and its diameter of Hemingway hybrid. At the same time, using of plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm and foliar application by 1 LEANUM, as well as disking to a depth of 5-8 cm and combined application of inoculant LEANUM and double foliar application LEANUM, the number of rows in the cob significantly increased. However, none of the options led to a significant increase in the number of grains in the row. When growing Harmonium hybrid, an increase in the weight of 1000 seeds was noted in the variant of plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm and the variant with inoculation and two-time foliar application of LEANUM, the yield compared to the control increased by 21.9 %. The grain yield of the Hemingway hybrid was higher compared to the control by 27.2 % on the background of inoculation and two application of LEANUM on the background of flat-cut tillage. It's also important to note that the usage of fertilizer products and the adoption of various soil cultivation techniques had a big impact on the harvest's quality indicators. So, for example, when growing Harmonium by plowing to a depth of 25- 28 cm and treating with biofertilizer on the leaf (control + 2 LEANUM), as well as by disking to a depth of 5-8 cm together with control options + 1 LEANUM and inoculation with VITAMIN O7, an increase was observed protein content. With regard to oil content, an increase was observed only with disking to a depth of 5-8 cm and combined treatment with LEANUM + 1 LEANUM. The starch content reached the highest values when plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm and combined treatments VITAMIN O7 + 2 LEANUM and LEANUM + 1 LEANUM. An increase in the ash content was observed when plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm and treatments control + 2 LEANUM, LEANUM and LEANUM + 2 LEANUM. During the cultivation of the Hemingway hybrid, it was found that the greatest changes in the indicators of protein, oil, starch and ash content were observed when disking to a depth of 5-8 cm and combined processing with the use of VITAMIN O7 + 2 LEANUM. When plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm was used, the values of oil indicators increased on the combined options of treatment with fertilizer products, and the content of starch and ash depended on the depth and type of tillage. In contrast, the fiber content did not show significant changes in any of the variants. It is important to take into account the correlations between the factors under investigation and grain quality. Thus, during the cultivation of Harmonium, tillage and fertilizing products did not have a significant correlation with the protein content of corn grains. Tillage shows a weak negative correlation with oil and starch content, but this effect is offset by biofertilizers, showing a moderate positive correlation. Similar dependences were also observed for ash and fiber content, where tillage showed a negative correlation, and fertilizer products showed a positive correlation. Also, all tillage showed a moderate negative correlation with fiber, while biofertilizers showed a weak positive correlation. Under Hemingway cultivation, tillage had a weak negative correlation with oil, starch, and fiber content of corn kernels, and these relationships were statistically significant. Overall, application of biofertilizers showed a weak positive correlation with starch, ash and fiber, which was also statistically significant. All indicators of crop quality had a certain level of positive correlation with each other, except fiber, which showed a moderate negative correlation with protein and oil. At the same time, a weak inverse relationship between tillage and yield was found for both hybrids. The production of both hybrids exhibits a poor direct association with biofertilizers at similarly. During the research, the influence of tillage on soil moisture and cellulose decomposing activity was also studied. According to dispersion analysis, the influence of tillage on soil moisture is significant. In particular, the indicator of moisture content before sowing indicated that in the flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25- 28 cm, the field soil moisture content is significantly lower than after plowing. In turn, the correlation analysis indicates that a significant impact was found not due to the agricultural unit used for cultivation, but due to the depth of this cultivation and the amount of moisture that was available due to precipitation in each of the studied years. At the same time, during the study of cellulose-decomposing activity, not only the influence of tillage, but also the inoculation of VITAMIN O7 and LEANUM was investigated. Thus, it was established that inoculation did not have any positive effect on the investigated indicator, however, tillage did. Carrying out the main autumn cultivation of the soil significantly affects the activity of the soil biota. For example, at a depth of 0-10 and 10-20 cm, the indicators of linen decomposition were approximately the same for all processing options, except for disking to a depth of 15-18 cm, where significantly lower indicators were found. However, at a depth of 20-30 cm, the lowest biota activity values were observed in the 25-28 cm plowing and 25-28 cm flat-cut treatments, while the shallower soil treatments had higher values, although not significant. The thesis presents the first proposed method of seed inoculation during sowing, that reducing the involvement of labor in this process and reducing energy consumption. This can be done by inoculating directly in the field, solution covers seed directly by spraying. Such a procedure is ensured by converting the sowing machine and installing some additional elements. In this method, coating the seed with the inoculant at the same time as the seed enters the soil is better than applying it before sowing in advance, especially considering that the strains of microorganisms should not be exposed to direct sunlight and may reduce the effectiveness due to the prolongation of the time from treatment to the sowing process. After analyzing the economic efficiency, it can be concluded that the options with the highest yield are the most profitable. In particular, for the cultivation of Harmonium, the highest profit (21,305 hryvnias/ha) was obtained for plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm and combined treatment with LEANUM + 2 LEANUM biofertilizers. At the same time, the highest profit (UAH 25,722/ha) for growing Hemingway was obtained with the same combined treatment with biofertilizers (LEANUM + 2 LEANUM), but with flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm. As a result of the conducted research, the increase in productivity of different hybrids is ensured in different ways. For example, for Harmonium, the increase in productivity was ensured by the use of plowing to a depth of 25-28 cm as the main tillage, while for Hemingway the highest yield was achieved by flat-cut tillage to a depth of 25-28 cm. However, the only option that ensured a reliable increase in yield was the combined treatment with LEANUM + 2 LEANUM fertilizer products.
URI: https://repo.snau.edu.ua:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/11247
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